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Prajapati: All you need to know about the Vedic deity of Hinduism

Prajapati: All you need to know about the Vedic deity of Hinduism 2

Prajapati: All you need to know about the Vedic deity of Hinduism

Prajapati (Sanskrit: प्रजापति, romanized: Prajāpati, lit. ’lord of creation and defender’) is a Vedic divinity of Hinduism. In later writing, Prajapati is related to the maker god Brahma, however, the term additionally indicates various divine beings, contingent upon the Hindu text, going from being the maker god to being same as one of the accompanying: Viswakarma, Agni, Indra, Daksha, and numerous others, mirroring the assorted Hindu cosmology.

In traditional and archaic period writing, Prajapati is compared to the otherworldly idea called Brahman as Prajapati-Brahman (Svayambhu Brahman), or then again Brahman is portrayed as one who existed before Prajapati.

Prajapati, (Sanskrit: “Ruler of Creatures”) is the extraordinary maker divinity of the Vedic time of antiquated India. In the post-Vedic age, he came to be related to the Hindu god Brahma.


The successive hypotheses on the production of the world in the early Vedic writing suggest different base figures, like Hiranyagarbha (“Golden Egg”) and Vishvakarman (“All-Accomplishing”), and the title of Prajapati was applied to more than one such figure.

Later it was utilized to connote one god—the master, all things considered. As indicated by one of the tales of creation, Prajapati delivered the universe and every one of its creatures after first setting himself up by going through tapas (plain practices); different stories imply his own creation from the base waters.

His female transmission, who supported him in the production of different creatures, was Vac, the exemplification of the holy word, however now and then his female accomplice is given as Ushas, the first light, who is likewise viewed as his girl.


On the whole, the singular divinities conceded the title Prajapati are the “mind conceived” offspring of Brahma. They are by and large considered to number 10, however, a few specialists lessen them to seven and relate them to the seven extraordinary rishis (old sages).

Historical underpinnings

Prajapati (Sanskrit: प्रजापति) is a compound of “praja” (creation, procreative forces) and “pati” (ruler, master).[5] The term signifies “ruler of creatures”, or “ruler of all conceived beings”.

In the later Vedic texts, Prajapati is an unmistakable Vedic god, yet whose importance diminishes.[2] Later, the term is inseparable from different divine beings, especially Brahma. Still later, the term advances to mean any heavenly, semi-heavenly, or human sages who make something new.


Prajapati: All you need to know about the Vedic deity of Hinduism 3


“An endeavor to portray the inventive exercises of Prajapati”, a steel etching from the 1850s. The starting points of Prajapati are muddled. He shows up late in the Vedic layer of texts, and the psalms that notice him give diverse cosmological hypotheses in various chapters.

He is absent from the Samhita layer of Vedic writing, imagined in the Brahmana layer, states Jan Gonda. Prajapati is more youthful than Savitr, and the word was initially a sobriquet for the sun.


His profile steadily ascends in the Vedas, topping inside the Brahmanas.[8] Scholars, for example, Renou, Keith, and Bhattacharji set Prajapati began as a theoretical or semi-dynamic god in the later Vedic milieu as theories developed from the old to more educated speculations.


A potential association among Prajapati (and related figures in Indian practice) and the Prōtogonos (Ancient Greek: Πρωτογόνος, in a real sense “first-conceived”) of the Greek Orphic custom has been proposed.

Protogynous is what might be compared to Vedic Prajapati severally: he is the main god brought into the world from an astronomical egg, he is the maker of the universe, and in the figure of Dionysus—an immediate relative of Protogonos—admirers take an interest in his passing and resurrection.



Prajapati is portrayed from multiple points of view and conflictingly in Hindu texts, both in the Vedas and in the post-Vedic texts. These reach from being the maker god to being same as one of the accompanying: Brahma, Agni, Indra, Vishvakarma, Daksha, and numerous others.

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His job differs inside the Vedic texts, for example, being one who made paradise and earth, the entirety of water and creatures, the boss, the dad of divine beings, the maker of devas and asuras, the enormous egg, and the Purusha (spirit).


His job topped in the Brahmanas layer of Vedic text, then, at that point declined to be a gathering of assistants in the creation process.[2] In some Brahmana texts, his job stays questionable since he co-makes with the forces with goddess Vāc (sound).

In the Rigveda, Prajapati shows up as a sobriquet for Savitr, Soma, Agni, and Indra, who are totally adulated as equivalent, same and ruler of creatures. Elsewhere, in psalm 10.121 of the Rigveda, is depicted Hiranyagarbha (brilliant incipient organism) that was brought into the world from the waters containing everything, which delivered Prajapati.

It then, at that point made manah (mind), kama (want) and tapas (heat). Nonetheless, this Prajapati is an illustration, one of the numerous Hindu cosmology speculations, and there is no incomparable god in the Rigveda.


One of the striking elements about the Hindu Prajapati legends, states Jan Gonda, is the possibility that the work of creation is a continuous interaction, finished in phases of preliminary and improvement.

In the Shatapatha Brahmana, implanted inside the Yajurveda, Prajapati radiated from Purusha (enormous soul) and Prajapati co-makes the world with the goddess of Language.

It additionally incorporates the “brilliant inestimable egg” folklore, wherein Prajapati is expressed to be brought into the world from a brilliant egg in an antiquated ocean after the egg was hatched for a year.


His sounds turned into the sky, the earth, and the seasons. At the point when he breathed in, he made the devas (divine beings), fire, and light. At the point when he breathed out, he made the asuras (evil presences) and murkiness.

Then, at that point, along with the goddess of Language, he made all creatures and time.[22] In Chapter 10 of the Shatapatha Brahmana, just as section 13 of Pancavimsa Brahmana, is introduced another hypothesis wherein he (Prajapati) is a mother, becomes self-pregnant with all living animals self-produced, then, at that point, underhanded Mrtyu holds onto these creatures inside his belly, but since these creatures are essential for the unceasing Prajapati, they want to live long like him.

The Aitareya Brahmana offers an alternate fantasy, wherein Prajapati, having made the divine beings, transformed into a stag and moved toward his girl Dawn who was as a doe, to create other natural creatures.


The divine beings were astonished by the inbreeding, and united to deliver irate ruinous Rudra to rebuff Prajapati for “doing what isn’t finished”. Prajapati was killed by Rudra.

The Kausitaki Brahmana offers one more fantasy, wherein Prajapati made from his own self fire, sun, moon, wind, and ladylike sunrise. The initial four saw daybreak and delivered their seeds, which became their presence (Bhava).

In area 2.266 of Jaiminiya Brahmana, Prajapati is introduced as a profound educator. His understudy Varuna lives with him for a very long time, contemplating the workmanship and obligations of being the “father-like ruler of gods”.


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Prajapati shows up in early Upanishads, among the most persuasive texts in Hinduism. He is depicted in the Upanishads differently. For instance, in various Upanishads, he is introduced as the exemplification of inventive force after Brahman, equivalent to the meandering endless soul, as imagery for unmanifest dark firstborn, as show procreative sexual powers, the knower especially of Atman (soul, self), and a profound educator that is inside each person.

The Chandogya Upanishad, as a representation, presents him as follows: Oneself (atman) that is liberated from shades of malice, liberated from advanced age and demise, liberated from distress, liberated from yearning and thirst; the self whose wants and expectations are genuine – that is the self that you should attempt to find, that is the self that you should look to see.


At the point when somebody finds that self and sees it, he gets every one of the universes, and every one of his cravings are satisfied, so said Prajapati.

Post-Vedic texts

In the Mahabharata, Brahma is proclaimed to be a Prajapati who makes numerous guys and females and permeates them with want and outrage, the previous to drive them into duplicating themselves and the last to keep them from resembling gods.

Other parts of the legends and Puranas pronounce Shiva or Vishnu to be Prajapati. The Bhagavad Gita utilizes the sobriquet Prajapati to portray Krishna, alongside numerous other epithets.


The Grhyasutras incorporate Prajapati as among the gods summoned during wedding functions and appealed to for gifts of prosperous descendants, and amicability among spouse and wife.

Prajapati is related to the embodiments of Time, Fire, the Sun, and so forth He is additionally related to different legendary ancestors, particularly (Manu Smrti 1.34) the ten masters of made creatures initially made by Brahmā: the Prajapatis Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Prachetas or Daksha, Bhrigu and Nārada.

In the Puranas, there are gatherings of Prajapati called Prajapatayah who were rishis (sages) or “granddads” from whom all of mankind came about, trailed by a Prajapatis list that broadly fluctuates in number and name between various texts. According to George Williams, the conflicting, changing, and advancing Prajapati idea in Hindu folklore mirrors the different Hindu cosmology.



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